The yips is a problem most commonly seen with golfers that can affect performance.


Criteria for the yips:

(1) an involuntary movement in the upper extremities

(2) during a shot that requires fine motor control (putting, chipping, etc)

(3) no other explanation (sudden noise, etc)


The yips may be encountered in other competitive sports such as cricket and putt-putt.


Types of yips according to Stinear et al:

(1) Type I: focal upper limb dystonia with involuntary movements

(2) Type II: performance anxiety-related ("the chokes")


A third type due to a mixture of both types may also be present.


Determining the cause of the yips is important if they need to be controlled.


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