The yips is a problem most commonly seen with golfers that can affect performance.
Criteria for the yips:
(1) an involuntary movement in the upper extremities
(2) during a shot that requires fine motor control (putting, chipping, etc)
(3) no other explanation (sudden noise, etc)
The yips may be encountered in other competitive sports such as cricket and putt-putt.
Types of yips according to Stinear et al:
(1) Type I: focal upper limb dystonia with involuntary movements
(2) Type II: performance anxiety-related ("the chokes")
A third type due to a mixture of both types may also be present.
Determining the cause of the yips is important if they need to be controlled.
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Specialty: Surgery, orthopedic