Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever (EHF) should be suspected if one or more of the following case definitions are met.

Case definition 1 – both of the following:

(1) presence of fever

(2) presence of bleeding (from gums, from nose, from gastrointestinal tract, purpura, bloody vomitus, hemorrhagic conjunctivitis)


Case definition 2 – both of the following:

(1) presence of fever with or without bleeding

(2) contact with a person with EHF


Case definition 3 – both of the following:

(1) fever

(2) 3 or more of the following:

(3a) headache

(3b) vomiting

(3c) loss of appetite (anorexia)

(3d) diarrhea

(3e) severe fatigue or weakness

(3f) abdominal pain

(3g) generalized muscle or joint pain

(3h) difficulty swallowing

(3i) difficulty breathing

(3j) hiccups


Case definition 4:

(1) an unexplained death in an area with cases of EHF



• Case definition 3 appears to be nonspecific for EHF.

• It is important to exclude alternative diagnoses and infections. For example, radiation poisoning could present with many of these findings.

• All of these definitions are presumptive. Definitive testing should be performed to establish the diagnosis.

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