A deficiency of vitamin K may be associated with an embryopathy.

Vitamin K deficiency embryopathy is related to warfarin/coumadin-associated embryopathy.



(1) hyperemesis gravidarum

(2) severe malnutrition

(3) malabsorption

(4) genetic defect in vitamin K metabolism in the mother and/or fetus (epoxide reductase deficiency, other)


Clinical manifestations:

(1) craniofacial malformation, including Binder phenotype (maxillonasal hypoplasia)

(2) brachytelephalangic chondrodysplasia punctata

(3) cervical spine abnormalities (related to chondrodysplasia)

(4) variable ear deformities



• Normal cartilage is rich in vitamin K-dependent protein matrix gla protein.

To read more or access our algorithms and calculators, please log in or register.