Radiopaque markers which are swallowed can be used to evaluate a patient with constipation. The pattern seen on an abdominal radiograph taken several days after the markers have been swallowed may indicate an underlying bowel dysfunction.


Example: Sitzmarks (registered trademark), Konsyl Pharmaceuticals, Inc.



(1) Radiopaque markers are swallowed.

(2) The patient is instructed to take no laxative, enema or suppository for the next 5 days.

(3) Abdominal radiographs are taken on the fifth day after swallowing the markers, with the distribution of the markers determined.

Pattern on Abdominal X-rays


no or rare markers present

normal colonic transit

markers distributed evenly throughout the colon

hypomotility or colonic inertia

markers congregated in the rectosigmoid colon

functional outlet obstruction (about the anal sphincter)


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