van Kerrebroeck et al listed problems affecting urine storage in the bladder. A urine output diary and urodynamic studies may be necessary to identify the conditions affecting a specific patient.


Problems affecting storage of urine in the bladder:

(1) bladder outlet obstruction with inability to completely empty (with post void residual urine)

(2) bladder irritation or hypersensitivity

(3) detrusor overactivity (neurogenic, non-neurogenic)

(4) reduced nocturnal bladder capacity

(5) reduced functional bladder capacity (resection, pressure from obesity, pregnancy, etc)

(6) urogenital “aging”



• An age > 60 will be used in the implementation as an indication of aging.


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