Rarely a fistula may develop between a ureter and the uterus.


Risk factors for a ureterouterine fistula:

(1) cesarean section (especially low transverse)

(2) uterine curettage for elective abortion or other uterine surgery

(3) nephrolithiasis (usually with severe urinary tract infection)

(4) uterine cancer

(5) penetrating abdominal or pelvic trauma


Clinical findings:

(1) urine draining per vagina, with urine seen at the cervical os

(2) pneumonephrosis


Imaging studies with contrast material (excretory urography, other) can demonstrate the fistulous track.


Differential diagnosis:

(1) ureterosalpingeal fistula

(2) vesicouterine fistula

(3) ureterovaginal fistula


To read more or access our algorithms and calculators, please log in or register.