Rarely a fistula may develop between a ureter and a fallopian tube.


Risk factors:

(1) severe nephrolithiasis (often associated with obstruction and UTI)

(2) infection

(3) iatrogenic (laparoscopy for endometriosis, etc)

(4) malignancy

(5) abdominal or pelvic trauma



• In theory an ectopic pregnancy could be a risk factor.


Clinical findings:

(1) urine draining per vagina

(2) pneumonephrosis


Imaging studies with contrast material (excretory urography) can demonstrate the fistulous track.


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