The umbilical vessels normally are coiled within the umbilical cord. Neonates with increased or decreased coiling of umbilical vessels have a higher frequency of perinatal difficulties.

umbilical coiling index =

= (number of umbilical vessel coils) / (length of cord in cm)



• index < 0.065: hypocoiled

• index > 0.319: hypercoiled

• index >= 0.065 and <= 0.319: normocoiled



• hypocoiled cords are associated with increased fetal heart disturbances and need for interventional deliveries

• hypercoiled cords are associated with increased premature deliveries and a higher rate of maternal cocaine usage

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