Arteriovenous malformations of the retinal blood vessels can be classified into different types based on the fundoscopic appearance. The type of malformation may have prognostic significance for the patient.



Fundoscopic Findings



large artery with capillary network between artery and vein; some vessels in capillary network may be abnormally large

very low risk of cerebrovascular malformations


large artery and vein with direct connections (no intervening capillary bed); direct connections may develop aneurysms (racemose or arteriovenous aneurysms)

aneurysms may leak; intermediate risk for cerebrovascular malformation


markedly dilated and tortuous arteries and veins with direct connections, resembling a “bag of worms”

high risk for cerebrovascular malformations; vessels often leak


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