Trigeminal trophic syndrome is an uncommon condition that follows damage to the trigeminal nerve.

Distribution: usually the second branch of the trigeminal nerve, but it can involve all three


Clinical features:

(1) skin ulceration, typically on an ala nasi

(2) unilateral numbness, anesthesia or dysesthesia along the affected branch/branches of the trigeminal nerve


The skin ulceration is self-induced but the patient may be unaware of causing it.


Causes of trigeminal nerve damage:

(1) trigeminal ablation

(2) infarction

(3) vertebrobasilar insufficiency

(4) tumor (acoustic neuroma, astrocytoma or meningioma)

(5) spinal cord degeneration

(6) leprosy-related neuritis

(7) Herpes zoster

(8) syringobulbia

(9) post-encephalitic parkinsonism

(10) trauma or surgery

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