Nutbeam et al developed a simple tool for predicting the time to extricate victims at a road accident. The authors are from Demiford Hospital Plymouth, Shresbury  and Telford Hospitals, West Midlands Fire Service and Keele University.

Patient selection: occupant of a car involved in a road accident


arbitrary base extrication time: 8 minutes


Conditions increasing the extrication time




physical obstruction

+10 minutes

any patient physically trapped

+ 7 minutes

each patient medically trapped

(+10 minutes) * (number trapped)



Conditions reducing the extrication time




rapid access

-7 minutes

car on roof

-12 minutes



• Rapid access probably implies that there was no physical obstruction.


total time to extricate in minutes =

= 8 + SUM(positive factors) - SUM(negative factors)



• The numbers might change by factors such as number of responders, number of vehicles involved and the weather.

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