Adams et al reported the TOAST classification of subtypes associated with acute ischemic stroke. The authors are from multiple institutions in the United States.

TOAST is an acronym for Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment.


Subtypes of acute ischemic stroke:

(1) cardioembolism

(2) small vessel occlusion (lacune)

(3) stroke of other determined/identified etiology

(4) Stroke of undetermined etiology

(4a) 2 more causes identified (mixed etiology)

(4b) negative evaluation (undetermined after complete evaluation)

(4c) incomplete evaluation


Other etiologies:

(1) nonatherosclerotic vasculopathy

(2) hypercoagulable state

(3) hematologic disorder

To read more or access our algorithms and calculators, please log in or register.