One of the more common causes of livedo reticularis (LR) involves thromboemboli.


Hypercoagulable states:

(1) antiphospholipid syndrome, including Sneddon's syndrome

(2) hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)

(3) thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)

(4) disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC)

(5) myeloproliferative disorder (thrombocythemia, polycythemia rubra vera)

(6) antithrombin III deficiency

(7) deficiency in protein C or protein S

(8) other hypercoagulable states (factor V Leiden, etc)


Embolic conditions:

(1) endocarditis

(2) cholesterol embolization syndrome

(3) atrial myxoma

(4) fat emboli

(5) septic embolization


Autoimmune disorders:

(1) cold agglutinins

(2) cryoglobulinemia

(3) cryofibrinogenemia

(4) crystaloglobulinemia in multiple myeloma


Air/Gas emboli:

(1) nitrogen decompression sickness

(2) air embolism

(3) carbon dioxide arteriography

(4) ventilator gas embolism


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