The VF-14 is a brief questionnaire designed to measure functional impairment  on patients due to cataract. It consists of 18 questions covering 14 aspects of visual function affected by cataracts. The VF-14 shows high internal consistency and is a reliable, valid instrument providing information not conveyed by visual acuity or general health status measures.


(1) 12 questions related to difficulty in general day-to-day functioning

(2) 2 questions on driving that are scored, plus 4 other questions related to driving


Questions on general functioning:

(1) reading small print

(2) reading a newspaper or book

(3) reading a large print publication

(4) recognizing people

(5) seeing steps or curbs or stairs

(6) reading signs

(7) doing handwork

(8) writing checks or filling out forms

(9) playing board games

(10) playing sports

(11) cooking

(12) watching television


Driving questions that are scored from 0 to 4:

(13) difficulty driving during the day

(14) difficulty driving at night




not applicable


no difficulty


little difficulty


moderate difficulty


great deal of difficulty


unable to do the activity



Additional driving questions

(1) currently driving or not

(2) ever drived

(3) when stopped driving

(4) why stopped driving


An item is not included in scoring if the person does not do the activity for some reason other than their vision.


average score for all activities =

= SUM(points for all activities affected by cataracts) / (total number of activities affected)


final score =

= (average of all activities) * 25



• minimum average score: 0

• maximum average score: 4

• minimum final score: 0

• maximum final score: 25

• A score of 100 indicates able to do all applicable activities

• A score of 0 indicates unable to do all applicable activities because of vision


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