The United Nations defined human trafficking in the Palermo Protocol from 2000.

A child is defined as anyone < 18 years of age.



(1) stages in the trafficking process

(2) means used to promote trafficking

(3) goals

(4) consent of the trafficked person


Stages in the process:

(1) recruitment

(2) transportation

(3) transfer

(4) harboring

(5) receipt


Means used to achieve:

(1) force

(2) threat of force

(3) other forms of coercion (threats to family and friends, etc.)

(4) abduction

(5) fraud

(6) deception

(7) abuse of power

(8) taking advantage of another's vulnerability

(9) offering money or other benefits to obtain consent of a person in control

(10) any or none of the above if a child is involved



(1) sexual exploitation (prostitution, pornography, etc.)

(2) forced labor or slavery

(3) servitude

(4) removal of organs


Whether the trafficked person has consented or not is irrelevant to the definition.

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