Terson described intra-ocular hemorrhage following intracranial hemorrhage. The bleeding appears to be secondary to raised intracranial pressures.


Preceding events:

(1) subararchnoid hemorrhage

(2) subdural hematoma

(3) intra-cranial hemorrhage following trauma

(4) intra-cranial hemorrhage from other causes


Clinical presentation: decreased visual acuity including blindness, unless patient has decreased consciousness


The intra-ocular hemorrhages are:

(1) usually bilateral

(2) multiple

(3) in the posterior segment.


Location of hemorrhage:

(1) intraretinal

(2) preretinal (subhyaloid)

(3) intravitreal


Recovery is usually good if the patient survives unless there is a complication. The return to normal vision may take 4-9 months.


Complications include:

(1) epiretinal membrane formation

(2) retinal detachment (traction or rhegmatogenous)


The differential diagnosis includes direct trauma to the eye or secondary to orbital fractures.


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