An elderly patient who undergoes major surgery may become frail following surgery. This can result in disability and loss of independence.

Patent selection: elderly patient


Preoperative risk factors for postoperative frailty:

(1) preoperative dependency in activities of daily living

(2) malnutrition

(3) small muscle mass

(4) poor physical conditioning


Operative and postoperative risk factors for postoperative frailty:

(1) major surgery or trauma

(2) prolonged intensive care

(3) prolonged inactivity

(4) acute systemic inflammatory response, major infection or other catabolic condition

(5) poor nutritional support

(6) lack of social support

(7) become depressed



(1) Delay major surgery if possible, using the time for nutritional repletion and exercise.

(2) Provide careful nutritional support following surgery.

(3) Aggressive physical rehabilitation following surgery.

(4) Some recommend testosterone to aid as an anabolic agent in men.

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