Splanchnic vein thrombosis can be a life-changing event depending on its severity, complications and comorbid conditions.

Splanchnic vein thrombosis may occur with:

(1) Budd-Chiari syndrome (with occlusion of hepatic and/or portal veins)

(2) extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO)

(3) mesenteric vein thrombosis


Risk factors:

(1) cancer

(2) myeloproliferative neoplasm

(3) cirrhosis

(4) intra-abdominal infection (appendicitis, abscess, peritonitis, etc)

(5) inflammatory bowel disease

(6) pancreatitis

(7) tuberculous lymphadenitis

(8) surgery

(9) abdominal trauma

(10) autoimmune disease (Behcet's, vasculitis)

(11) antiphospholipid syndrome

(12) oral contraceptives

(13) pregnancy or puerperium

(14) paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)


The condition may be acute, subacute or chronic.


Clinical findings may include:

(1) abdominal pain

(2) portal hypertension

(3) abnormal liver function tests

(4) intestinal ischemia or infarction


Diagnosis can be made by imaging studies (venography, contrast-enhanced CT or MRI, ultrasonography).

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