A number of ocular findings can be found in astronauts, especially after long space flights. The cause of the Space Flight-Associated Neuro-Ocular Syndrome (SANS) is a subject of ongoing research.

Theories: increased intracranial pressure; cephalad fluid shift


Clinical features:

(1) reduced visual acuity

(2) change in refraction, which may be temporary


Findings associated with SANS:

(1) unilateral or bilateral optic disc edema

(2) globe flattening

(3) choroidal and retinal folds

(4) hyperopic refractive error shifts

(5) cotton wool spots (nerve fiber layer infarcts)

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