An anterior encephalocele may present with a number of signs and symptoms.


Findings associated with a mass effect

(1) swelling over the nose

(2) hypertelorism

(3) proptosis

(4) nasal obstruction or obstruction of the upper airway

(5) nasopharyngeal mass


CSF leakage

(1) recurrent meningitis

(2) nasal fluid drainage



(1) neurofibromatosis (may be associated with orbital encephaloceles)

(2) hydrocephalus with an enlarged head (macrocephaly)

(3) pituitary dysfunction


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