Caudell et al used certain clinical findings as surrogate indicators for severe long-term dysphagia in a patient receiving radiation therapy for a head and neck cancer. The authors are from the University of Alabama at Birmingham.

Patient selection: history of radiation therapy for a Stage III or IV head and neck cancer


Clinical indicators of severe long-term dysphagia - the presence of one or more of the following:

(1) percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube dependence

(2) aspiration on a modified barium swallow study

(3) clinical diagnosis of aspiration pneumonia (especially if recurrent)

(4) presence of a pharyngoesophageal stricture

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