A patient with an infected ventriculoatrial shunt may develop "shunt" nephritis.
Patient selection: ventriculoatrial shunt for drainage of hydrocephalus that is infected with a low-grade bacterial pathogen (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proprionibacterium acnes, other)
Mechanism: circulating immune complexes
(1) immune complex glomerulonephritis with hematuria, proteinuria, hypertension and renal dysfunction
(2) variable arthritis
(3) variable purpuric rash (leukocytoclastic vasculitis)
(4) recurrent fever
(6) cerebral symptoms (behavioral change, seizures, headache, etc)
(2) decreased serum C3
(3) variable cryoglobulins
(4) variable ANA and/or rheumatoid factor
(5) elevated serum creatinine
(6) elevated ESR and/or CRP
If the infection is uncontrolled or the diagnosis delayed then the patient can develop renal failure.
If the infection is successfully controlled then long-term complications can be avoided.
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Specialty: Nephrology, Clinical Laboratory