Flatley et al reported a number of findings that may be classified as evidence of a severe adverse neonatal outcome (SANO). The authors are from the University of Queensland and Mater Medical Research Institute in Australia.

Patient selection: neonate


Conditions considered as severe adverse neonatal outcomes:

(1) severe acidosis

(1a) umbilical artery pH < 7.0

(1b) serum lactate > 6 mmol/L

(1c) serum base excess less than or equal to -12 mmol/L

(2) admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)

(3) Apgar score <= 3 at 5 minutes

(4) perinatal death (stillbirth after 37 weeks of gestation; death within 28 days of birth)

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