Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) is one of several molecules which may be elevated following a sports concussion.

The blood specimen should be collected within a few hours ( < 4 hours or < 12 hours in different studies) of the suspected concussion. Drawing several specimens can document the rise and fall.


Units of GFAP: pg/mL


Having a baseline serum level prior to any head injury may be helpful in determining the personal increase following a head injury.


A patient with an elevated serum GFAP and a normal head CT scan may show positive changes if an MRI scan is performed.


The serum GFAP concentration is higher in athletes with loss of consciousness, post-traumatic amnesia or diffuse axonal injury.


One issue affecting the interpretation is the number of episodes of head trauma prior to specimen collection.

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