A number of conditions may be associated with a stereotypy. The presence of one or more of these conditions indicates a secondary stereotypy. The absence of all indicates a primary stereotypy.


Secondary causes for a stereotypy include:

(1) Rett syndrome

(2) Williams syndrome

(3) Down syndrome

(4) fragile X syndrome

(5) other genetic neurodevelopmental disorders

(6) phenylketonuria

(7) adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency

(8) frontotemporal lobe degeneration

(9) pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration

(10) stroke

(11) significant sensory impairment (visual and/or auditory)

(12) post-streptococcal pharyngitis

(13) encephalitis lethargica

(14) paraneoplastic anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis

(15) acquired brain injury (trauma, infection,

(16) autisim spectrum disorder

(17) severe psychiatric disorder

(18) seizure disorder


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