Soares et al evaluated adolescents in Brazil for adverse childhood experiences (ACE). The authors are from the Federal University of Pelotas, University of Sao Paulo and the University of Bristol.

Patient selection: Brazilian adolescent


Adverse Experience


physical abuse

being hit and left with injury or bruising

sexual abuse

sexual advance against will with or without threats

emotional neglect

parent did not want child to be born; felt hated

physical neglect

not enough food or clothing

domestic violence

fights with physical assault in household

parental separation

parents separated or divorced

parental death

death of mother and/or father


Risk factors for ACE:

(1) non-white skin color

(2) low family income

(3) low maternal schooling

(4) absence of mother's partner

(5) maternal smoking during pregnancy

(6) poor maternal mental health

(7) maternal consumed any alcohol during pregnancy

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