A patient with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis can develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The cause of the cancer may be multifactorial.

Species implicated: S. mansoni, S.japonicum


Patients who live in areas endemic for schistosomiasis are exposed to other risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma such as:

(1) viral hepatitis B or C

(2) aflatoxins

(3) ethanol abuse


When to suspect schistosomiasis as causal:

(1) The patient acquired schistosomiasis as a child.

(2) The patient has hepatic fibrosis with portal hypertension.

(3) No other cause of hepatocellular carcinoma is identified. However, the effect of schistosomiasis and other exposures may be additive.

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