The risk of a cardiac event associated with a noncardiac surgical procedure can be estimated from the nature of the procedure.
Risk of Cardiac Event
high ( > 5%)
emergency surgery, particularly in an elderly patient
aortic or other major vascular surgery
peripheral vascular surgery
prolonged surgery with major fluid shifts and/or blood loss
intermediate (1-5 %)
head or neck surgery
intraperitoneal or intrathoracic surgery
major orthopedic surgery
low ( < 1%)
minor orthopedic surgery
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Specialty: Cardiology, General Surgery, Orthopedic Surgery