The risk of a cardiac event associated with a noncardiac surgical procedure can be estimated from the nature of the procedure.


Risk of Cardiac Event

Noncardiac Procedure

high ( > 5%)

emergency surgery, particularly in an elderly patient


aortic or other major vascular surgery


peripheral vascular surgery


prolonged surgery with major fluid shifts and/or blood loss

intermediate (1-5 %)

carotid endarterectomy


head or neck surgery


intraperitoneal or intrathoracic surgery


major orthopedic surgery


prostate surgery

low ( < 1%)



superficial procedures


cataract surgery


breast surgery


minor orthopedic surgery


To read more or access our algorithms and calculators, please log in or register.