Fractures to facial bones may occur following a fall. The pattern of trauma may be affected by patient comorbidities. The authors are from the University of Tennessee.

Patient selection: falls


Facial fractures tend to occur more often in prominent bones that are more likely to strike a surface:

(1) nasal bones

(2) orbit

(3) zygoma


Less common sites:

(1) mandible

(2) frontal sinus

(3) LeFort

(4) maxillary wall

(5) naso-orbito-ethmoidal (NOE)


Concomitant trauma:

(1) lacerations

(2) bruising and hematomas


More common risk factors:

(1) history of previous falls

(2) cardiovascular disease (coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, hypertension, etc)

(3) neurologic disease

(4) older age


Neurologic disease was associated with orbital fractures.


Other comorbid conditions:

(1) endocrine disorder

(2) psychiatric disease

(3) pulmonary disease

(4) musculoskeletal disease

(5) ocular disease

(6) kidney disease


Polypharmacy may be implicated in several of the comorbid conditions.

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