Van den Bree and Pickworth identified a number of risk factors associated with marijuana use by a teenager. These can help identify a teenager at high risk for drug misuse. The authors are from Cardiff University (Wales) and the National Institutes on Drug Abuse at NIH..


Increased Risk

Decreased Risk

involvement in social activities

low levels of engagement

high level of participation

psychological health

depression, anxiety, poor emotional control, personal difficulties

good mental health


limited coping skills, poor self-concept

good coping skills, good self-image

school situation

poor performance, truancy, low connectedness

good performance, good attendance, strong bonds

family functioning

inconsistent, lack of structure, high levels of conflict, low bonding, poor parenteral monitoring, substance abuse

consistent, low conflict, strong bonding, good parenteral monitoring


substance abuse, delinquent, maladaptive



rough, violent


belief structure

rebellious, unconventional, irreligious

religious, conservative


Major risk factors for marijuana use found by van den Bree and Pickworth:

(1) abuse of other substances by self and by peers

(2) delinquency

(3) problems in school


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