Tal et al identified risk factors for mortality of an elderly patient in the hospital. The authors are from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Kaplan Medical Center in Rehovot, Israel.

Patient selection: hospitalized adult >= 65 years of age


Predictors of mortality while in the hospital:

(1) older age (90 to 102 greater than 80 to 89 which is greater than 65 to 79)

(2) elevated serum vitamin B12 (alive 148 to 655 pmol/L; dead 296 to 900)

(3) low serum albumin (alive 3.1 to 4.1 g/dL; dead 2.3 to 3.5)


highest quartile vitamin B12 AND lowest quartile albumin


age 65 to 79


age 80 to 89


age 90 to 102



Other factors such as frailty and the severity of underlying disease may contribute to mortality.



• Values for vitamin B12 are affected by the assay so a z-score would be more useful.

To read more or access our algorithms and calculators, please log in or register.