Rugg-Gunn et al identified factors associated with diabetic ketoacidosis occurring as the presenting sign of Type 1 diabetes in a pediatric patient. The authors are from the University of Liverpool, University of Edinburgh, and University of Cambridge.

Patient selection: pediatric patient with type 1 diabetes


Factors increasing the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis:

(1) age < 2 years (OR 3.5)

(2) presentation during the COVID-19 pandemic (OR 2.3)

(3) lower body mass index at diagnosis

(4) lack of private insurance and/or low family income

(5) ethnic minority (OR 0.40)


Factors reducing the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis:

(1) participation in a screening program for diabetes (0.35)

(2) family history of type 1 diabetes (OR 0.46)

(3) parental education

(4) high serum C-peptide level

(5) receiving care from a family physician or pediatrician



• The text states that being from an ethnic minority was associated with increased risk, but the reported OR was 0.40.

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