Riggio et al identified risk factors for overt hepatic encephalopathy in a patient with cirrhosis. This can help to identify a patient who may benefit from more aggressive management. The authors are from Sapienza University of Rome and the University of Padua in Italy.

Patient selection: cirrhosis


Outcome: overt hepatic encephalopathy within follow-up period (up to 42 months in Figure 1)


Risk factors from multivariate analysis::

(1) previous history of overt hepatic encephalopathy (hazard ratio 2)

(2) evidence of minimal encephalopathy by the psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES), with a score < -4 (hazard ratio 2)

(3) serum albumin < 3.5 g/dL (hazard ratio 2.3)


Each risk factor was assigned 1 point if present, else 0.

The coefficients for the multivariate model nor reported.


Performance of model:

• The area under the ROC curve was 0.74.

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