Pedersen et al identified risk factors for cardiovascular and pulmonary complications after anesthesia and non cardiac surgery. This can help identify patients who may require closer monitoring and more aggressive management in the perioperative period. The authors are from the University of Copenhagen in Denmark.


NOTE: Pedersen also developed a model for in-hospital mortality after anesthesia and surgery as described above in 31.08.01.


Major surgery included:

(1) open cholecystectomy

(2) perforated peptic ulcer with vagotomy and pyloroplasty

(3) gastrojejunostomy

(4) removal of adhesions in intestinal obstruction

(5) partial or total colectomy

(6) colostomy

(7) explorative laparotomy

(8) caesarean section

(9) thyroidectomy

(10) organ transplantation

(11) renal graftectomy

(12) open reduction and internal fixation of a major fracture

(13) major bone surgery


Risk factors for increased cardiovascular complications

(1) chronic heart failure

(2) preoperative renal failure (serum creatinine > 300 mmol/L, > 3.39 mg/dL)

(3) history ischemic heart disease

(4) previous myocardial infarction (AMI), especially within the past year

(5) age >= 70 years, with lower risk if 50 - 69 years

(6) major surgery


Risk factors for increased pulmonary complications:

(1) age >= 70 years, with lower risk if 50 - 69 years

(2) emergency surgery

(3) major surgery

(4) history of chronic obstructive lung/pulmonary disease

(5) use of muscle relaxants during anesthesia


Equations for predicting risk of cardiovascular complications are listed in section 06.03 and of pulmonary complications are listed in section 08.20.


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