Ohayon et al identified risk factors for sleep bruxism in the general population. These factors can help to identify affected patients and to plan an appropriate intervention. The authors are from Stanford University.


Risk factors for sleep bruxism:

(1) obstructive sleep apnea and/or snoring and/or daytime sleepiness and/or disrupted sleep

(2) anxiety and/or depression

(3) heavy caffeine intake (6 or more cups of coffee per day)

(4) smoking

(5) drinking alcohol during the day

(6) other parosomnias (talking, violent behaviors, hypnagogic hallucinations)

(7) stressful life

(8) age 19 to 64 years

(9) having automatic behaviors during the daytime



• A hypnagogic hallucination is an hallucination that occurs between sleeping and awakening.


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