Makdissi et al identified risk factors associated with a delay in an athlete's return to play following a concussion. The authors are from the University of Melbourne in Australia.


Selection: athlete following concussion injury


Risk factors for a delay in returning to play:

(1) headache lasting >= 60 hours (2.5 days)

(2) presence of fatigue, tiredness and/or mental "fogginess"

(3) presence of 4 or more symptoms at the initial presentation



• Symptoms included visual disturbances, light headedness, confusion, memory deficit, vertigo, problem with balance, headache, and feeling dazed.


Return to play was more rapid if the headache disappeared within 24 hours.


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