Jackson et al identified risk factors for urinary incontinence in postmenopausal women. This can help identify patients who may benefit from targeted screening with intervention. The authors are from Veterans Administration Puget Sound and the University of Washington in Seattle.


Risk factors for any incontinence identified by multiple logistic regression:

(1) white race (versus "other")

(2) use of vaginal estrogen cream

(3) vaginal dryness

(4) vaginal discharge

(5) >= 6 lifetime urinary tract infections

(6) diabetic peripheral neuropathy


Risk factors for severe incontinence in adjusted models:

(7) history of hysterectomy

(8) presence of any vaginal symptom (dryness, discharge, itching, dyspareunia)



• The odds ratios for these factors were fairly close, ranging from 1.5 to 2.0.


The authors noted that a significant proportion (almost 20%) of postmenopausal women who were continent at the start of the study had developed some incontinence within the 2 year followup period (page 857).


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