Gibier et al reported risk factors for failure of intrauterine tamponade to control postpartum hemorrhage. The authors are from Aix-Marseille University in France.

Patient selection: woman with post-partum hemorrhage


Definition of tamponade failure: use of a second-line therapy (uterine artery embolization, surgery, or death)


Risk factors for tamponade failure from multivariate analysis:

(1) cesarean section (aOR 4.2)

(2) preeclampsia (aOR 2.3)

(3) uterine rupture (aOR 14.1)


Other factors that may contribute in the univariate analysis:

(1) higher maternal age

(2) lower gestational age at delivery

(3) placental abnormalities

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