Chou and Chang identified risk factors for mental retardation occurring in a patient with the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). The authors are from Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Taoyuan, Taiwan.


Patient selection: tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)


Outcome: mental retardation


Risk factors for mental retardation:

(1) poorly controlled seizures (often generalized tonic clonic seizures)

(2) cortical tubercles and/or subependymal nodules on imaging studies (CT or MRI) of the brain


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