Ashrafioun and Bonar identified risk factors associated with problematic tanning and tanning dependence. The authors are from Bowling Green State University and the University of Michigan.

An affected patient has frequent tanning sessions, often indoors. Failure to engage in tanning is associated with distress, whereas a tanning session is associated with relief.


Risk factors for a tanning disorder:

(1) female gender

(2) body dysmorphic disorder

(3) obsessive-compulsive disorder

(4) anxiety, depression and/or distress

(5) other coping behaviors (alcohol, marijuana, etc)

To read more or access our algorithms and calculators, please log in or register.