Vitamin D deficiency may develop in a person if certain risk factors are present.


Age-related risk groups:

(1) infants

(2) elderly


Environmental risk groups:

(1) very limited exposure to sunlight or a source emitting sunlight equivalent light

(2) people at a high latitude (near North or South Poles) during winter

(3) submariners and astronauts



(1) no or limited intake of vitamin D fortified dairy products

(2) no or limited dietary supplementation with vitamin D

(3) no or limited intake in foods rich in vitamin D (fortified cereals, cod liver oil, eggs, fatty fish)



(1) dark-colored skin

(2) malabsorption

(3) pregnancy and lactation

(4) drug interactions reducing vitamin D utilization or increasing loss (anticonvulsants, antituberculous drugs)

(5) alcoholic

(6) renal failure


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