The risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is increased if certain risk factors are present.


Gender and racial factors:

(1) male

(2) European descent

(3) Latino/Hispanic (for acute promyelocytic leukemia)


Genetic risk factors:

(1) Bloom syndrome (excessive chromatin fragility)

(2) Fanconi anemia (excessive chromatin fragility)

(3) Kostmann syndrome (excessive chromatin fragility)

(4) Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome

(5) ataxia-telangiectaasia

(6) Down syndrome (Trisomy 21)

(7) Klinefelter syndrome (XXY) or variants

(8) Patau syndrome (Trisomy 13)


Radiation exposure risk factors:

(1) atomic bomb survivors

(2) occupational exposure to radiation, including mining

(3) therapeutic radiation


Drug and chemical exposure risk factors:

(1) chloramphenicol

(2) phenylbutazone

(3) chloroquine

(4) methoxypsoralen

(5) benzene

(6) chemical dyes

(7) herbicides

(8) pesticides

(9) smoking

(10) inhibitors of topoisomerase II (etoposide, teniposide)

(11) alkylating agents (cyclophosphamide, melphalan, nitrogen mustard)


Hematologic risk factors:

(1) myelodysplasia

(2) myeloproliferative disorder

(3) paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)


To read more or access our algorithms and calculators, please log in or register.