A variety of risk factors may be associated with shoulder pain in baseball pitchers <= 18 years of age. Recognition of these factors allows for preventive interventions prior to serious injury.


Factors associated with an increased risk of shoulder pain:

(1) throwing curveballs before 14 years of age

(2) throwing > 50 pitches per game

(3) playing year round (usually associated with a year round warm climate)

(4) poor mechanical technique

(5) arm fatigue

(6) poor satisfaction with performance

(7) low number of cumulative pitches (< 300 per season)


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