Certain factors are associated with progression in diabetic nephropathy to end-stage renal failure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Interventions targeted to these findings may slow or prevent progression in affected patients.

Risk factors for which there are feasible interventions:

(1) elevated blood pressure

(2) albuminuria or proteinuria

(3) poor glycemic control, with elevated glycosylated hemoglobin

(4) high level insulin resistance

(5) smoking

(6) high dietary intake of protein (possible)

(7) hypercholesterolemia (possible)


Risk factors for which there are no interventions (but which may trigger the need for more aggressive management):

(1) advanced age

(2) males or post-menopausal women

(3) Black or Native American

(4) family history of cardiovascular events (? related to hyperlipidemia)

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