Plantar fasciitis is inflammation of the plantar fascia at its insertion, with or without a heel spur (calcaneal exostosis). The resultant pain may limit the performance of athletes and reduce a person's ability to exercise.


Mechanism: multi-factorial, including repetitive trauma with chronic inflammation and fibrosis of soft tissues. Entrapment of small nerve branches may contribute. Because of the condition's chronic relapsing course, a particular causative incident may be difficult to document.

Risk Factors in General Population

Risk Factors in Athletes

obesity (high body mass index)


prolonged standing, especially with load bearing

running excessively, or increasing distance run

prolonged standing on an unyielding surface

running on an unyielding surface

pes planus (excessive pronation of the foot)

pes cavus (high-arched foot)

reduced ankle dorsiflexion

shortened or tight Achilles tendon

inappropriate shoe design

defect or problem in running shoes


A common presentation is an obese middle-aged patient who may be taking up exercise to lose weight or who may have a job where the person stands all day long.


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