Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn (PPHN) is associated with a number of risk factors in the mother and/or newborn.


Risk factors for PPHN:

(1) gender of the neonate male

(2) meconium aspiration by the newborn

(3) neonatal pneumonia

(4) neonatal sepsis

(5) neonatal thyrotoxicosis

(6) nonvertex presentation

(7) maternal NSAID use

(8) maternal race Asian or Black

(9) fetal distress with Cesarean section

(10) fetal macrosomia (which may reflect maternal diabetes)

(11) delivery after 41 weeks of gestation

(12) maternal diabetes mellitus

(13) maternal fever

(14) maternal urinary tract infection

(15) chorioamnionitis

(16) maternal upper respiratory tract infection or pneumonia

(17) maternal asthma or other respiratory disease

(18) maternal anemia

(19) maternal obesity and/or high prepregnancy body mass index (BMI > 27 kg per sq m)

(20) lower maternal education level

(21) maternal smoking

(22) maternal use of SSRI antidepressant in the second half of the pregnancy



• Some of the risk factors overlap. For example, maternal fever may be caused by pneumonia, urinary tract infection, chorioamnionitis, etc.


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