Neonatal polycythemia may occur because of intrauterine, peripartum and postpartum conditions.


Hereditary causes:

(1) Beckwith-Weidemann Syndrome

(2) congenital adrenal hyperplasia

(3) Trisomy 13, 18 or 21


Endocrine causes:

(1) hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism (thyrotoxicosis)

(2) maternal diabetes


Intrauterine conditions (associated with hypoxia, etc):

(1) maternal hypertension syndrome

(2) maternal smoking

(3) maternal cyanotic heart disease

(4) intrauterine growth retardation, small for gestational age

(5) macrosomia (large for gestational age)

(6) postmaturity


Placental and delivery-related factors:

(1) twin-twin transfusion syndrome

(2) maternal-fetal transfusion

(3) perinatal asphyxia

(4) delayed clamping of the umbilical cord

(5) holding the infant below the introitus prior to cord clamping


Miscellaneous factors:

(1) high altitude conditions

(2) excessive blood transfusion following delivery


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