Nausea and vomiting are a relatively common complication of opioid analgesics. The risk of nausea and vomiting may be increased in certain circumstances.


Risk factors associated with the patient:

(1) younger age (adolescent or young adult)

(2) female

(3) Caucasian

(4) history of nausea and vomiting with opioid exposure

(5) motion in a patient with a history of motion sickness

(6) immediate post-operative state


Risk factors related to the opioid analgesic:

(1) use of morphine

(2) intravenous or intramuscular administration

(3) higher dose

(4) administration of other emetogenic drugs

(5) administration to a patient without previous opioid exposure (chronic exposure reduces the risk)

(6) oral dose not taken with food


To read more or access our algorithms and calculators, please log in or register.