A boxer is at significant risk for late neurologic sequelae that can be disabling. The risk is affected by a number of factors, many of which can be controlled.


Risk factors for neurologic injury in a boxer:

(1) number of bouts fought

(2) wearing of protective head gear

(3) number of times knocked out or suffered significant concussion

(4) other sources of head injury

(5) abuse of alcohol or drugs

(6) presence of diabetes mellitus and/or cerebrovascular disease


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