Heat-related injury may develop during exercise if certain risk factors are present.


Precipitating events:

(1) vigorous exercise in a warm to hot environment

(2) clothing with poor vapor permeability

(3) excessive exposure to sunlight


Poor shape:

(1) no or limited acclimation to environment

(2) poor muscle conditioning

(3) obesity

(4) comorbid disease (especially cardiac and renal disease)

(5) very young or very old



(1) failure to replace liquids

(2) diuretic beverages (tea, coffee, soft drinks containing caffeine, alcoholic beverages)



(1) diuretics

(2) amphetamines

(3) cocaine

(4) anticholinergic agents

(5) beta-adrenergic blocking agents

(6) alpha-adrenergic agonists (decongestants)

(7) haloperidol


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